a. (Introduction, p. 10) Besides toying with the promise and pitfalls of technological determinism – or the idea of the Europeanized nation-state as an artefact of the printed book – Marshall McLuhan was an enthusiastic and assiduous reader of Joyce’s Finnegans Wake. In The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962) he described it as ‘an entirely new form of expression’ designed ‘to capture the complex interplay of factors’ that underpinned his own central thesis, namely, that ‘print and nationalism are axiological or co-ordinate, simply because by print a people sees itself for the first time’ (246-47). He also traced his own critique of the way the ‘West’ privileges the visual, at the expense of the ‘audile-tactile’, back to Joyce and understood the Wake as a revolutionary experiment in writing designed to awaken the ‘mesmerized and homogenous servants’ of print and the nation from their ‘Night’ (297-98). In War and Peace in the Global Village (1968), which McLuhan co-produced with the graphic designer and inventive book artist Quentin Fiore, he used extensive quotations from the Wake as a gloss on his own text. As the blurb puts it, the ‘marginal quotes’ are ‘a tribute to the man who was first to write about the electrical retribalization of the West.’ War and Peace, which focuses on the propensity of the new media to fuel violence and division, is a less sanguine appraisal of the electronic age than Gutenberg Galaxy. The rise of the internet in the 1990s saw a revival of McLuhanite technological utopianism perhaps best exemplified by John Perry Barlow’sDeclaration of the Independence of Cyberspace‘ (1996) which articulated a new anti-statist vision of a digital ‘Republic of Letters’. As Timothy Garton Ash shows in Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World (2016) that dream did not survive the first decades of the new century when corporate and then state interests began to refashion and in some cases re-nationalize the web for their own commercial and political purposes. For a summary account of my own take on Finnegans Wake and the modern state, see Fourth Proposition. (I have cited the 2011 Toronto University Press edition of The Gutenberg Galaxy and the 2001 Gingko Press edition of War and Peace here.)

b. (Introduction, p. 16) For more on Tagore’s educational ideals and Visva-Bharati, see L. K. Elmhirst and Rabindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore: Pioneer in Education (London: John Murray, 1961); K. C. Mukherjee, ‘Tagore: Pioneer in Education’, British Journal of Educational Studies, 18.1 (1970): 69–81; Uma Das Gupta, ‘Using a Poet’s Archive to Write the History of a University: Rabindranath Tagore and Visva-Bharati‘, Science and Culture (July-August 2013), 266-72; Martha C. Nussbaum, Political Emotions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2013); and Ranjan Ghosh, Aesthetics, Politics, Pedagogy and Tagore: Towards a Transcultural Philosophy of Education (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017). Also worth consulting in this context is Michael Collins, Empire, Nationalism and the Postcolonial (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012).

c. (Introduction, p. 20) The first image below shows the statue of the enthroned, book-bearing King James I (1566-1625) on the tower on east side of the Bodleian Quad in Oxford. James is flanked by figures representing fame on his right and the university on his left. The second shows the inscription bearing Sir Thomas Bodley’s (1545-1613) initials above the main entrance on the west side. The Quad was completed in 1619. The translations of the inscriptions come from Reginald H. Adams, Latin Inscriptions in Oxford (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2015), 3-4. As Adams notes, ‘Republic of Letters‘ can also be translated as ‘the commonwealth of the educated or learned’.


In the reign of the Lord James, of kings the most learned, the most generous and the best, this massive tower was erected for the Muses, the library was gathered together and whatsoever was hitherto lacking for the magnificence of the university was successfully planned, begun and completed. To God alone be the glory.


May it turn out happily. Masters of Oxford, Thomas Bodley placed this library here for you and for the Republic of Letters.

d. (Introduction, p. 21) For a fuller history of English studies and the modern university, see D. J. Palmer, The Rise of English Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965); Chris Baldick, The Social Mission of English Criticism, 1848-1932 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983); Gerald Graff, Professing Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); Ian Hunter, Culture and Government (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988); Gauri Viswanathan, Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989); Franklin E. Court, Institutionalizing English Literature (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992); John Guillory, Cultural Capital (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993); Lawrence Goldman, Dons and Workers: Oxford and Adult Education since 1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995); J. B. Harrison, ‘English as a University Subject in India and England’, Transmission of Knowledge in South Asia, ed. Nigel Crook (New Delhi: Oxford University press, 1996), 155-89; Stefan Collini, ‘Cambridge and the Study of English’, Cambridge Contributions, ed. Sarah J. Ormond (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 42-64; Christopher Hilliard, English as a Vocation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012); and Alexandra Lawrie, The Beginnings of University English: Extramural Study, 1885-1910 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2014).

e. (Chapter 1, p. 37) Paper always has a story to tell. In the case of Matthew Arnold’s ‘Culture and its Enemies‘ (1867), the last lecture he gave as Oxford Professor of Poetry, the sheets on which he drafted the manuscript say something about the circles in which he was moving and the roles he was juggling at the time. They also cast a new light on his defence of classical culture and state-sponsored national Bildung. As the manuscript images below reveal, he began writing on official Education Department stationary and then switched to paper bearing the embossed letterhead of the Anthenaeum, the prestigious London club to which he and his chosen adversary John Bright both belonged. A private members’ club founded in 1824, the Athenaeum was, and still largely is, for eminent men of ‘science, literature or the arts’ – it first admitted women as equal members in 2002. In Ancient Athens, the Athenaeum was a temple in which poets, philosophers and orators met to read and discuss their work.

Like Literae Humaniores, nineteenth-century Oxford’s flagship undergraduate course, which Arnold studied at Balliol College in the early 1840s, the club embodied the classical ideals he espoused and the nineteenth-century elite generally shared – hence the provocative force of Bright’s comments about ‘a smattering of the two dead languages of Latin and Greek’. As the statue above the main portico, the mosaic flooring, and the embossed letterhead indicate, it was named in honour of the Greek goddess Athene, and the palatial clubhouse on Pall Mall in London, completed in 1827, was designed in the neoclassical style. Like many such buildings scattered across the globe (see a and b), it gives architectural expression to a once dominant way of thinking interculturally: treating one culture, or idea of that culture, as standard-setting and making its forms and ideals a definitive part of your own (see Fifth Proposition). As the various changes to first sentence of the manuscript show, Arnold initially called Bright ‘that famous orator’, before considering ‘tried and famous’ and then opting for ‘famous liberal’, giving a greater centrality to his party-political affiliation. In the final published version he calls him ‘that fine speaker and famous Liberal’.

Arnold Ed Dept page

Arnold Atheneum page
By permission of Balliol College, Oxford and the Arnold Estate

f. (Chapter 1, p. 38) For the ongoing debates about Arnold’s legacy, see Raymond Williams, Culture and Society: 1780-1950 (London: Chatto and Windus, 1958);  Edward W. Said, ‘Nationalism, Human Rights, and Interpretation’ Raritan, 12 (1993): 26-51; Matthew Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, ed. Samuel Lipman (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994); Stefan Collini, Matthew Arnold: A Critical Portrait (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994); Terry Eagleton, The Idea of Culture (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000); Robert J. C. Young, The Idea of English Ethnicity (Oxford: Blackwell, 2008); Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, Something Torn and New (New York: BasicCivitas, 2009); and Helen Small, The Value of the Humanities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Arnold’s dreaming spires

g. (Chapter 1, p. 44) The following image shows James Murray’s notes on the word ‘orange’ for the lecture series on ‘English Words’ he gave to undergraduates studying English at Oxford in 1911:

Murray on orange
By permission of the Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford and the James Murray Estate

h. (Chapter 1, p. 49) To emphasize the fact that the English word ‘plunder’ is borrowed from German (plundern, literally ‘to rob a household of its furnishings’), the British Council film on the ‘History of the English Language’ (1943) included the following cartoon image. To see the film, click here.

By permission of the British Council Film Collection

i. (Chapter 2, p. 98) For an Excel spreadsheet detailing the contributors to T.S. Eliot’s Criterion, click here: Criterion contributors list. I am grateful to Charne Lavery for compiling this census.

j. (Chapter 3, p. 113) The following image shows the ‘Proclamation’ as it appeared in Eugene Jolas’s little magazine transition (16-17) in June 1929. For more details, click here and for an account of the genre of the manifesto, see Martin Puchner, Poetry of the Revolution (2005). The ‘Proclamation’, which Puchner does not discuss, both confirms and challenges some of his central claims. If it combines ‘performative intervention’ with ‘theatrical posing’ (5) on the part of an artistic collective – characteristic features of the genre – it does not succeed in turning the Wake into an instance of what Puchner calls ‘manifesto art’ – ‘an art forged in the image of the manifesto’ (6). As I argue in the book, the mismatch between Joyce’s project and Jolas’s is more telling than any real or imagined convergences, not only because it highlights the tensions between collective and individual endeavours within avant garde groups but because it exposes the gulf between the manifesto as a genre and individual acts of writing. Conspicuously Joyce is not among the signatories to the ‘Proclamation’.

Copyright Betsy Jolas, sole copyright holder for the works of her father Eugene Jolas

k. (Prologue to Part 2, p. 156) Group of experts convened to advise on UNESCO’s Fundamental Education programme in 1947 under the general direction of Julian Huxley, H. E. Wilson, and Sir Alfred Zimmern. Zimmern, a fellow Oxford-trained Classicist, had worked closely with Gilbert Murray in the League of Nations. The details come from UNESCO, Fundamental Education: Common Ground for all Peoples (New York: Macmillan, 1947), 263-72. To watch footage of the conference for the establishment of UNESCO in London on 16 November 1945 at which the constitution was first read, click here.

Name Background Nationality Region
Martinez BAEZ Under Secretary, Health and Welfare Department, Mexico; Mexican Delegate to the World Health Organization, Mexican Delegate to UNESCO. Mexico S AMERICA
Augustin Nieto CABALLERO Colombian Ambassador to Chile; Director of Primary and Secondary Schools, Colombia; Rector, Universidad National, Colombia; Rector, Ginmasio Moderno, Bogota. Columbia S AMERICA
A. TEIXEIRA Professor of Education, Institute of Education, Bahia; Director, Department of Education, Federal District, Rio de Janeiro. Brazil; Professor of Education, University of the Federal District. Brazil S AMERICA
Elena Cuellar TORRES. Organizer and Administrator, Experimental Rural Education Mission, Agricultural Department, Mexico; General Supervisor of Rural Education, Ministry of Education, Mexico. Mexico S AMERICA
H. B. ALLEN Director of Education, Near East Foundation. US N AMERICA
L. A. FREE Director of Research and Planning. International Film Foundation, editor Public Opinion Quarterly, Princeton University. US N AMERICA
E. GABRIEL Head of the Supervision Section Rural Education Division Haiti; Head of the Section of Urban Primary Education and Teacher Training, Haiti. Haiti N AMERICA



Associate Professor, Bryn Mawr College, USA, Acting Head, Section of University Relations, Institute of Intellectual Co-operation, Paris. US N AMERICA
Donn V. HART



Research Assistant for the Study of American Teaching Materials on the Soviet Union, American Council on Education. US N AMERICA



Professor of Education, Harvard University, editor of the report. US N AMERICA
Thomas Jesse JONES Educational Director, Phelps-Stokes Fund, U.S.A. US N AMERICA
Isaac L. KANDEL Professor of Education, International Institute, Teachers College, Columbia University. US N AMERICA
L. KENWORTHY Head of the Social Studies Department, Friends Central School, Overbrook, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. US N AMERICA
Frank Charles LAUBACH Maranaw Folk Schools, Lanao, Philippines; teacher and leader of literacy campaigns in India, Africa, Mexico, Central and South America, Philippines, etc.; Special Counsellor and Representative, Committee on World Literacy and Christian Literature. US N AMERICA
H. Ormonde McCONNELL Pastor, Methodist Church, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; Acting Chairman, Methodist Churches of Haiti; General Secretary, Haitian Government committee on Illiteracy. Haiti N AMERICA
Margaret MEAD Anthropologist, social scientist; Associate Curator of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. US N AMERICA
Albert CHARTON Inspecteur Général de l’Instruction Publique, Ministère de la France d’Outre Mer, 1946. France EUROPE
Bertie Harry EASTER Director of Education, Acting Colonial Secretary, Grenada, Jamaica. Jamaica EUROPE
W. C. FARR British Ministry of Information, Films Division. UK EUROPE
Hope HAY



Missionary, London Missionary Society; at present engaged in experiment in Mass Education for Northern Rhodesia Government. UK EUROPE
Beatrice KING Specialist on Soviet Education; Chair, Education Committee, Society for Cultural Relations between the Peoples of the British Commonwealth and the USSR; Assistant Editor Anglo-Soviet Journal. UK EUROPE
H. LABOURET Former Professor of Sudanese, National School of French Overseas Territories; National School of Oriental Languages, Institute of Anthropology. School of Political Sciences: former head of the International Institute of African Languages and Civilisations. France EUROPE
R. S. LAMBERT Supervisor of Educational Broadcasts, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; Editor, The Listener British Broadcasting Corporation. UK EUROPE
J. A. LAUWERYS Reader in Education, University of London. UK EUROPE
C. K. OGDEN Linguist; editor Psyche; inventor of Basic English; Director of Orthological Institute, London. UK EUROPE
Henning RAVNHOLT Head of Education Department, Danish Cooperative Wholesale Society; Lecturer. Borup Folk high School, Copenhagen. Denmark EUROPE
Margaret READ Anthropologist; Reader in Education, University of London. UK EUROPE
I.A. RICHARDS University Professor, Harvard University; Director, Harvard Commission on English Language Studies. UK EUROPE
R. W. VAN DIFFELEN Sub-Director of Education and Public Worship, Netherlands Indies; Ministry of Overseas Territories, Plein, The Hague, Holland. Holland EUROPE
Frank Harvey VIVIAN Exchange teacher, Training College for Teachers, Bonn University, Germany; Assistant Master, Wellington College, England and Clifton College, England; Education Officer, R.A.F., P.O.W. Camps, Germany. UK EUROPE
Margaret WRONG Secretary, International Committee on Christian Literature for Africa ; Editor, Books for Africa. UK EUROPE
Yuan Ren CHAO Research Fellow and Chief of Section of Linguistics, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica; on leave for research and instruction at University of Hawaii, Yale University, Harvard University. China ASIA
Ranjit Mohan CHETSINGH Editor, Indian Journal of Adult Education; Honorary General Secretary, Indian Adult Education Association ; Head, Quaker Centre, Delhi; Lecturer in Sociology and Economics, Delhi College of Nursing India ASIA
B. C. GUHA Chief Technical Adviser, Food Department, Government of India; Professor of Applied Chemistry, Calcutta University. India ASIA
Francis. L. K. HSU Professor of Social Anthropology, National Yunnan University, Kunming, China; Lecturer on Anthropology, Columbia University, N.Y. China ASIA
Yu-shou KUO Chair; Member of the Council of the Szechwan Provincial Government; Commissioner of Education, Province of Szechwan; Professor, National Szechwan University and West China Union University, Adviser to the Chinese Delegation to the United Nations. China ASIA
Cheng-su WANG Professor of Education, National Chekiang University, China. China ASIA
Chu-pei YETI Director of Metallurgical Research, Laboratory of the National Resources Commission, U.S.A.; Member Chinese Technical Missions to U.S.A. and Great Britain. China ASIA
Mohamed Bey AWAD Head, Department of Geography, Fnad I University, Egypt; Chief Publicity Censor, Egypt; Adviser to the Egyptian Delegation to the San Francisco Conference. Egypt ARAB STATES
Hassan Ahmed SALMAN Director of Rural Education; Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq. Iraq ARAB STATES
Mekki ABBAS Adult Education Officer, Bakht er Ruda, Sudan Government. Sudan AFRICA
A. G. DICKSON Education Officer, East Africa. East Africa AFRICA
V. L. GRIFFITHS Principal, Bakht er Ruda, Sudan. Sudan AFRICA



Executive Committee, South African Institute of Race Relations and South African Jewish Board of Deputies; Chair, Johannesburg Joint Council of Europeans and Africans. South Africa AFRICA
J.D. JONES Lecturer on Race Relations, University of Witwatersrand ; Secretary, Witwatersrand Council of Education; Member of Advisory Council of Labour; President of Sections E and P. South African Association for the Advancement of Science; Founder and Director, South African Institute of Race Relations. South Africa AFRICA
Ismail KABBANI Institute of Education. Cairo, Egypt; Technical Adviser to the Egyptian Ministry of Education. Egypt AFRICA
Quintin WHYTE Assistant Director, South African Institute of Race Relations; Assistant Secretary, Witwatersrand. South Africa AFRICA

l. (Prologue to Part 2, p. 160) Group of experts UNESCO convened in 1967 to advise on cultural policy and development. The details come from Mauricio Bustamante, ‘L’UNESCO et la culture: construction d’une catégorie d’intervention internationale, du “dévelopment culturel” à la “diversité culturelle”’, Doctoral thesis (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 2014), 80-81. I am grateful to Bustamante for allowing me to reproduce them here in a translated and revised form.

Name Background Nationality Region
Raymond RAVAR Senior Director of National Institute of Performing Arts and Technology (INSAS), Brussels. Belgium WEST EUROPE
Charles C. MARK Director, States and Community Operations, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities, Washington D.C. US N AMERICA
Roger STEVENS Executive Office of the President, Washington D.C. US N AMERICA
Pierre BOURDIEU Director of Studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, in charge of cultural sociology, Paris. France WEST EUROPE
Joffre DUMAZEDIER Research Fellow at the National Council for Scientific Research, Paris. France WEST EUROPE
Pierre MOINOT Novelist and Director General of Arts and Letters at the State Ministry for Cultural Affairs, Paris. France WEST EUROPE
Ivan BOLDIZSAR Writer, Budapest. Hungary EAST EUROPE
Enrico PAULUCCI Painter, and President of the Italian Committee of the International Association of Art, Turin. Italy WEST EUROPE
Antoine BATTAINI Head of Cultural Affairs at the State Department of the Principality of Monaco. Monaco WEST EUROPE
Arthur CROVETTO Minister Plenipotentiary, President of Monaco’s National Commission for UNESCO. Monaco WEST EUROPE
Stefan ZOLKIEWSKI Professor in the Social Sciences Section of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Poland EAST EUROPE
Nigel ABERCROMBIE Secretary-General, Arts Council of Great Britain. UK WEST EUROPE
Carl-Johan KLEBERG Administrator at the Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm. Sweden WEST EUROPE
Mulk Raj ANAND Writer and President, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi. India ASIA
Yoichi MAEDA Professor of French Literature at the University of Tokyo, President of the Cultural Affairs Committee of the Japanese National Commission for UNESCO. Japan ASIA
Yacine KATEB Playwright, Algiers. Algeria ARAB STATES
Abdel Moneim EL SALAI Under Secretary of State for Antiquities, Ministry of Culture, Cairo. Egypt ARAB STATES
Rafik SAID Director of Cultural Activities in Tunisia. Tunisia ARAB STATES
Carlos CHAGAS Ambassador, Permanent Delegate of Brazil to UNESCO. Brazil S AMERICA
Roberto MATTA Painter Chile S AMERICA
Alejo CARPENTIER Writer and Cultural Counsellor at the Cuban Embassy in Paris. Cuba S AMERICA
Albert HOBA Cultural Affairs Officer in the Ministry of National Education. Senegal AFRICA
Ousmane SEMBENE Film Director and writer, Dakar. Senegal AFRICA
Sam Joseph NTIRO Commissioner for Culture, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. Tanzania AFRICA

m. (Prologue to Part 2, p. 163) UNESCO’s ‘MacBride Commission‘, 1980: Bustamante (2014), 238.

Name Role Nationality Region
Seán MAC BRIDE Jurist and diplomat (Commission President) Ireland WEST EUROPE
Élie ABEL Journalist and dean of the School of Journalism at Columbia University US N AMERICA
Marshall McLuhan [replaced by Betty ZIMMERMAN] Sociologist specialising in communication Canada N AMERICA
Hubert BEUVE-MÉRY Lawyer and journalist France WEST EUROPE
Johannes Pieter PRONK Economist and poltician Holland WEST EUROPE
Léonid Mitrofanovich ZAMIATINE [replaced by Sergei LOSEV] Journalist and diplomat USSR EAST EUROPE
Bogdan OSOLNIK Journalist and politician (member of the National Assembly) Yugoslavia EAST EUROPE
Elebe Ma EKONZO Journalist, diplomat and politician Zaïre AFRICA
Fred Isaac Akporuaro OMU Academic and politician (former Head of Dept. of Mass Communications) Nigeria AFRICA
Mochtar LUBIS Economist, journalist and novelist Indonesia ASIA
Boobli George VERGHESE Economist and journalist India ASIA
Michio NAGAI Sociologist, journalist, politician (former Minister of Education) Japan ASIA
Mustapha MASMOUDI Economist, politician and diplomat (Secretary of State for Information) Tunisia ARAB STATES
Gamal EL-OTEIFI Journalist, lawyer, politician (former Information Minister and Vice-chair of Parliament) Egypt ARAB STATES
Gabriel GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ Journalist and writer Colombia S AMERICA
Juan SOMAVIA Lawyer, diplomat and scholar. Executive Director ILET Chile S AMERICA

n. (Prologue to Part 2, p. 167) UNESCO’s ‘De Cuellar Commission’, 1996: Bustamante (2014), 295-97.

Name Role Nationality Region
Javier PÉREZ DE CUELLAR Jurist and diplomat (Ex-Secretary General of the UN) Peru S AMERICA
Lourdes ARIZPE Anthropologist (Director of the Institute of Anthropological Research of the National University of Mexico) Mexico S AMERICA
Celso FURTADO Economist (former Planning Minister and former Minister of Culture, Honorary Professor of Development Economics at the University of Paris-Sorbonne) Brazil S AMERICA
Ole-Henrik MAGGA Linguist (expert Sami culture, University of Oslo) Norway EUROPE
Nikita MIKHALKOV Filmmaker (Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival 1991 Oscar for best foreign film in 1995) Russia EUROPE
Kurt FURGLER Lawyer and economist (Vice-President of the Club of Rome) Switzerland EUROPE
Niki GOULANDRIS Public Administrator (ecologist, former Secretary of State for Social Services, Honorary Vice-President of the Radio and Television) Greece EUROPE
Keith GRIFFIN Economist (Professor at the University of California, Riverside, Chairman of the Board of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development) US EUROPE
Mahbub UL HAQ Economist, politician and banker, especially known for creating the Human Development Index (HDI) in 1990. Pakistan ASIA
Chie NAKANE Social Anthropologist and orientalist (Honorary Professor of Tokyo, President of the Japanese National Commission for UNESCO) Japan ASIA
Angeline KAMBA Civil servant (Director of the National Archives) Zimbabwe AFRICA
Yoro K. FALL Historian (Professor and Head of Department of History at Shikh Anta Diop University, Dakar) Senegal AFRICA
Leila TAKLA Lawyer (Member of Councils for Culture and Universities, former President of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Egyptian Parliament) Egypt ARAB STATES

Honorary members of the ‘De Cuellar Commission’:

Name Role Nationality Region
El Hassan BIN TALAL Prince of Jordan, very committed to the causes of peace and development. Jordan ARAB STATES
Aung San SUU KYI Politician (Nobel Peace Prize, 1991) Myanmar ASIA
Derek WALCOTT Writer (Nobel Prize for Literature, 1992) Saint Lucia S AMERICA
Claude LÉVI-STRAUSS Anthropologist (Professor at the Collège de France, member of the French Academy) France EUROPE
Ilya PRIGOGINE Writer, physicist and chemist (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1977) Belgium EUROPE
Élie WIESEL Writer (Nobel Peace Prize, 1986) US EUROPE

o. (Prologue to Part 2, p. 168) UNESCO’s advisory committee on cultural diversity in the lead up to the Declaration (2001): Bustamante (2014), 331-332.

Name Background Nationality Region
Serge KANCEL Public Administrator, Project Manager at the General Inspectorate of the Administration of Cultural affairs. Inspectorate Department of Culture and Communication France EUROPE
Dan HAULICA Literary critic, Ambassador, Permanent Delegate of Romania to UNESCO Romania EUROPE
José PÉREZ LÁZARO Deputy Director General for International Cultural Cooperation (Secretary of State for Culture) Spain EUROPE
Tamara POURTROVA Deputy Director of the State Russian House of Folk Arts Russia EUROPE
Boleslaw SULIK Film director, journalist, and former President of the Polish National Council for Radio and Television (TVP SA) Poland EUROPE
Vassilis VASSILIKOS Writer, Ambassador, Permanent Delegate of Greece to UNESCO Greece EUROPE
Masanori AOYAGI Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Tokyo, Member of the Japanese National Commission for UNESCO Japan ASIA
Hossein AZIMI Economist, Department of Centre for Advanced Economic Studies, Islamic Azad University, Iran Iran ASIA
Rosario G. MANALO Career diplomat (political scientist), Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines in charge of International Economic Relations (1997-2001), Permanent Representative of the Philippines to UNESCO (1990-1994) Philippines ASIA
Khélifa CHATER Public Administrator, Director General of the National Library of Tunis Tunisia ARAB STATES
Sami KHACHABA Editor, and head of cultural reporting at Al-Ahram daily Egypt ARAB STATES
Aïd AL DAHYAT University Professor, President of the University Mutah Jordan ARAB STATES
Luís António COVANE Politician, Minister of Culture Mozambique AFRICA
John P.O. IGUE Minister of Industry and Small and Medium Enterprises and Professor of Geography Benin AFRICA
Daniel NDAGALE Politician, Commissioner for Culture at the Ministry of Education and Culture Tanzania AFRICA
Miguel LEÓN-PORTILLA Anthropologist and diplomat, former Permanent Delegate of Mexico to UNESCO Mexico S AMERICA
Luis Guillermo LUMBRERAS SALCEDO Director of the Indian Institute of Archaeological Studies of Lima and Professor of the National University of San Marcos Peru S AMERICA
Antonio RUDDER Culture and Commerce Committee Barbados S AMERICA

p. (Prologue to Part 2, p. 170) UNESCO’s advisory committee on cultural diversity in the lead up to the Convention (2005): Bustamante (2014), 368.

Name Background Nationality Region
Ivan BERNIER Professor of International Law Canada N AMERICA
Tyler COWEN Professor of Cultural Economics US N AMERICA
Mihaly FICSOR Professor of International Law Hungary EUROPE
Jean MUSITELLI French diplomat, former state councilor and member of the Board of the Institute of International and Strategic Relations France EUROPE
Alexandre SADOVNIKOV Professor of International Law Russia EUROPE
Sabine VON SCHORLEMER Professor of International Law Germany EUROPE
Toshiyuki KONO Professor of International Law Japan ASIA
Bhikhu PAREKH Professor of Political Science India ASIA
David THROSBY Professor of Cultural Economics Australia ASIA
Georges ABI-SAAB Professor of International Law Egypt ARAB STATES

q. (Chapter 4, p. 174) Front cover and editorial for Es’kia Mphahele’s The Voice of Africa, II.8 (December 1950). (Source: The South African National Library).



Voice ed 2.JPG


r. (Chapter 5, p. 192) Afrikaans student marginalia from the 1972 school edition of F. A. Venter‘s Swart Pelgrim (1958). The notes say: ‘I like this book a lot. It shows me how the Bantu live and how much they love their families. And how they want to be like whites.’


Swart Pelgrim Marginalia

s. (Chapter 7, p. 229) The front matter and Arvind Krishna Mehrotra’s editorial ‘statement’ from damn you 6 (1968), p. 1. For a PDF of all six issues of damn you, click here: damn you 1-6. The magazine is part of the collection of Mehrotra’s papers held at The Rare and Manuscript Collections Carl A. Kroch Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. YouTube interview: Mehrotra discusses the fate of Indian languages with Souradeep Roy (August 2018); YouTube interview: Mehrotra discusses Kabir with Souradeep Roy (September 2018).

Damn 6 editorial
By permission of the Carl A. Kroch Library and Arvind Krishna Mehrotra

t. (Chapter 7, p. 241) The front and back covers of Arun Kolatkar’s Jejuri (1976) in its original Clearing House edition designed by Kolatkar himself. The ‘religious’ front cover depicts Khandoba, the Hindu god celebrated in the pilgrimage town of Jejuri in the western state of Maharashtra; while the ‘secular’ back cover is based on ‘the setting sun’, the final poem in the sequence called ‘The Railway Station’, which describes the sun touching ‘the horizon/at a point where the rails/like the parallels of a prophecy/appear to meet.’ Clearing House was a Bombay-based writers’ publishing collective. Image reproduced by permission of Adil Jussawalla. For a further account of Kolatkar and his context, see Anjali Nerlekar, Bombay Modern: Arun Kolatkar and Bilingual Literary Culture (Northwestern University Press, 2016); and Laetitia Zecchini, Arun Kolatkar and Literary Modernism in India (Bloomsbury, 2014).

u. (Chapter 8, p. 244) Marginal notes on p. 101 of Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses (1988) faxed by the Islamic Foundation based in Leicester in the UK to Muslim organisations around the world, now among the archives of the apartheid censors in South Africa: see file P88/10/144, Directorate of Publications, Western Cape Provincial Archives and Records, Cape Town, South Africa. To see a PDF of all the marginal notes on the fax, which is dated 21 October 1988, click here: Verses marginalia. For more on the ‘Rushdie Affair’, see The Literature Police (Oxford, 2009), especially the Postscript, and Anshuman A. Mondal, Islam and Controversy (Palgrave, 2014), especially Chapter 4.

101 of SV

v. (Chapter 8, p. 256) The following image shows the charcoal self-portrait entitled ‘Ulysses’ (1988) by the Indian Expressionist painter F. N. Souza that provided part of the inspiration for Amit Chaudhuri’s Odysseus Abroad (2014). For Chaudhuri’s reflections on this, and on the process of writing, see ‘The Moment of Writing‘, the Paris Review, 10 May 2018; and for more on Souza and his generation, see Ratik Asokan, ‘The Modern Art of Independent India‘, NYRDaily, January 2019. To hear Chaudhuri reflect on the phrase ‘my people’ and the question of categories in ways relevant to the discussion in this chapter, click here.

By permission of Amit Chaudhuri

w. (Chapter 8, p. 260) A classically-trained Indian singer, Chaudhuri has a parallel career as a musician in which he has developed other ways of hovering between cultures without firmly settling down one way or the other, or seeking to achieve some kind of fusion. In the piece that follows, which is entitled ‘The Layla riff to Todi’, he moves musically between Eric Clapton’s ‘Layla‘ and the classical raga Todi, keeping both in play without according either a prior or normative status, much as he keeps the legacies of Tagore and Joyce alive in Odysseus Abroad while nonetheless producing a work entirely his own. The track comes from Chaudhuri’s first album This is not fusion (2010).

x. (Postscript, p. 265) The following images relate to Xu Bing’s 天书/ Tiānshū or Book from the Sky (1988). The first shows the complete installation with Buddhist sutras or scrolls hanging from the ceiling, over a hundred traditional paper-bound and thread-stitched books, neatly set out across the gallery floor, and modern poster-style newspapers covering the walls. The second contains examples of the pseudo-characters used throughout, and the third shows the woodblocks on which they were originally carved. For a guide to Xu Bing’s oeuvre, click here.

By permission of the Xu Bing Studio


By permission of the Xu Bing Studio


By permission of the Xu Bing Studio

y.  (Postscript, p. 267) To see images of Xu Bing’s Monkeys Grasp for the Moon (2001/8) installations, click here. For The Living Word (2001/2), click here.

z. (Postscript, p. 268) The following images show various aspects of Xu Bing’s Book from the Ground (2007-) in its book version from the cover to the initial inside pages. For more on the project and to buy the book, click here.

By permission of the Xu Bing Studio


By permission of the Xu Bing Studio


By permission of the Xu Bing Studio


By permission of the Xu Bing Studio

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